Judicial Independence captures in how far the judiciary system can be described as impartial and non-corrupt. This represents legal constraints on government power and is thus a key element of an effective control of corruption. The data stems from the Global Competitiveness Database developed by the World Economic Forum.
Trade Openness measures the extent of regulations concerning a country’s external economic activities. Open countries can control corruption better by eliminating room for discretion at the level of administrative trade barriers and thus allowing free competition. The component combines the average number of procedures and time for exporting and importing goods using data from the World Bank’s Doing Business datasets.
E-citizenship captures the ability of citizens to use online tools and social media in order to exercise social accountability. Internet media in general and social networks in particular are indispensable components of citizen empowerment. The component is constructed by combining the number of broadband subscriptions and internet users with the share of Facebook users relative to the population. The data stems from the International Telecommunication Union and Internet World Stats.
Administrative Burden measures the extent of domestic bureaucratic regulations. Excessive administrative burden and regulations open doors for discretion and red tape, resulting in higher corruption risks. The component is constructed combining the average number of procedures and the time needed to start a business and pay corporate taxes. The data stems from the World Bank’s Doing Business dataset.
Budget Transparency measures the extent and the quality of public accessibility of the executive’s budget proposal in order to provide a control mechanism for discretionary public spending. The component is based on selected questions which are used for the Open Budget Survey provided by the International Budget Partnership. Note that this measure does not fully correspond to the Open Budget Index but captures some of its key concepts.
Freedom of the Press measures the degree of media independence resulting from a specific national legal, political and economic environment in which print, broadcast, and internet-based media operate. Free media is indispensable in monitoring democratic institutions, public accountability and good government. The component is based on the Freedom House’s freedom of the press report.